It is important to understand how big the average sewage pond can be. If we take into account the processing power of sewage treatment plants in Israel as opposed to the number of people and the quantity of sewage flowing into the facility, we can see that this is a large quantity of sewage that is concentrated in one pond. In essence, the average sewage pond can cover an area of more than 50 acres (200 dunam). In order to construct a pond of such a size, heavy excavation and earthworks machinery is needed at the preliminary stage. Companies specializing in the construction of sewage treatment ponds begin by levelling and deepening the ground level in order to create the pond’s initial shape.
Bulldozers and excavator spend a relatively long time to create the exact shape and size of the pond. Now the bottom of the pond needs to be caulked. Sealing must be total in order to prevent leakages into the ground over time which, if allowed to happen, will damage the pond and the ground. There are a number of ways to caulk the pond. One, more expensive, is to use concrete or other material that hardens when installed in place. Concrete is relatively expensive and there is reasonable possibility that it will deteriorate over the years. Another possibility is the use of thick plastic sheets which are flexible and cheaper, extremely durable and totally impervious to liquids.
Following the finish of the sealing process, the pond is almost complete. All that remains is to connect two pipes: the pie that will bring in the sewage from the surrounding towns and the pipe that will transfer the waste material to the sewage treatment plant. Once both pipes have been connected, the pond is ready for operation.